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Whitepaper #342 submitted to the Planetary Science and Astrobiology Decadal Survey 2023-2032. Topics: surface/geological evolution; habitability and water; Mercury and/or the Moon
Small lunar penetrators are poised to become a valuable new tool for lunar science and exploration during the next decade. These low-cost ballistic probes can be deployed from orbit, or from descending robotic or crewed vehicles in large numbers to explore and characterize the diversity of extreme lunar shallow subsurface environments.