Presentation #303.01 in the session “Mid-Career Prize Talk I & II”.
Neutron stars are tiny objects with a rich and fascinating phenomenology. Their supranuclear density cores contain matter of incredible neutron-richness, and may harbor stable states of strange matter. They have solid crusts threaded by the strongest magnetic fields in the Universe, and oceans where runaway thermonuclear reactions can lead to powerful explosions. Using X-ray astronomy and relativity, we are starting to map these stars, inside and out — generating new insight into both stellar evolution and fundamental physics.