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Gas envelopes around protoplanets during pebble accretion.

Presentation #102.157 in the session Poster Session.

Published onJun 20, 2022
Gas envelopes around protoplanets during pebble accretion.

Context: The process of pebble accretion forms planets during the lifetime of the protoplanetary disks. These protoplanets are thus able to acquire gas envelopes. The temperature in these envelopes is high enough that water ice and other volatiles will sublimate. At the same time, there exist recycling gas flows between the planetary envelope and the disk. Understanding the evolution of the gas envelopes of protoplanets is therefore key to understanding the composition of protoplanets itself. Method: I present nested-grid, high-resolution 3D hydrodynamic simulations of pebble accretion on Mars- and Earth-mass protoplanets using the Dispatch framework (Nordlund et al., 2018; Popovas et al., 2018). The simulations extend down to the planetary surface. Therefore, my work is able to resolve the the gas motion close a protoplanet during pebble accretion. I introduced gas tracers to the setup in order to study the evolution of the envelope in more detail. In future, I plan to use a short characteristic ray tracing scheme to treat radiative energy transfer. Results: In the adiabatic limit, protoplanets show a bound envelope inside the Bondi radius for both the Mars- and Earth-mass protoplanets during the runtime of the simulations. Unbound gas enters the Bondi sphere of the embryo near the pole regions and exists the sphere close to the midplane. Bound gas orbits the embryo on a Rosetta like orbit.

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