Presentation #119.01 in the session HEAD I: The Shaw Prize in Astronomy.
It has long been recognized that the most luminous sources in the universe, may be powered by gravitational energy, rotational energy and magnetic energy. We are still learning how the power is partitioned between theses various forms and how this is made manifest in the observations. In this talk, I will discuss some new ideas that lead to the assertion that massive black holes in elliptical galaxies with low mass supply, like that in M87, are rotation powered and involve an ejection disk. By contrast, fast radio bursts may be powered by electromagnetic processes near the surface of a magnetar. Finally cosmic rays, from MeV to ZeV energies, may be powered ultimately by gravitational energy released through strong, collisionless, shock fronts. Some new physical processes, which may operate under these separate circumstances, will be briefly described.