Whitepaper #021 in the Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) 2024-2033. Main topics: basic research. Additional topics: solar physics; space-based missions/projects.
This white paper presents research avenues to accurately quantify the magnetic stress that builds up free energy in the photosphere, and which heats up the corona. In particular, these capacities relate to our ability to track the photospheric flows accurately enough to resolve rotating motions that stress the magnetic field.