Whitepaper #029 in the Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) 2024-2033. Main topics: basic research. Additional topics: planetary magnetospheres; fundamental space plasma theory.
Simulation research based on PIC and Vlasov codes and comparison with space measurements are essential to understand kinetic physics in various space environments. We discuss five kinetic topics about magnetic reconnection: collisionless resistivity and the reconnection rate, particle motion, 3D turbulence, wave-particle interactions, and studies of the Vlasov-Maxwell system.