Whitepaper #039 in the Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) 2024-2033. Main topics: basic research; infrastructure/workforce/other programmatic. Additional topics: research tools and infrastructure; ground-based missions/projects; system science; […]
The paper discusses the current state and future needs for measuring electric fields and conductances in the ionosphere. The main focus is on characterizing these fields across as large a range of scales as possible.