Whitepaper #047 in the Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) 2024-2033. Main topics: basic research. Additional topics: solar physics; space-based missions/projects; user-need-driven basic space weather research.
To advance heliophysics and space weather research we must investigate magnetic energy buildup in coronal eruption precursors and the heating mechanisms of the solar-wind plasma. Thus, we must measure the coronal magnetic field strength and the temperature anisotropy of the solar wind, quantities that are currently unobserved but essential to the dynamic evolution of the Sun’s corona and heliosphere.