Whitepaper #074 in the Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) 2024-2033. Main topics: space weather applications; basic research. Additional topics: planetary ionospheres / upper atmospheres; space weather research/applications/operations pipeline; […]
We recommend establishing a large array of ground-based observatories for monitoring weather in Earth’s mesosphere, thermospere, and ionsphere. These would be deployed from the Canadian Arctic down through the Americas to southern Argentina. Observatory instruments would characterize winds, temperatures and electrodynamics above ~80 km altitude, as well as the drivers that force these fields.