Whitepaper #101 in the Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) 2024-2033. Main topics: basic research. Additional topics: planetary magnetospheres; other basic research; space-based missions/projects.
In companion Decadal white papers(Clark+,2022;Kollmann+,2022;Turner+,2022), we present the case for exploring fundamental acceleration & loss processes in heliophysics through the natural laboratories of Jupiter’s radiation belts and mission concept COMPASS. Here, we focus on using X-rays for global context, to address longstanding questions & to provide a stepping-stone to astrophysical systems.