Whitepaper #106 in the Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) 2024-2033. Main topics: basic research. Additional topics: system science; user-need-driven basic space weather research.
The typical on-orbit mass spectrometer is limited in mass resolution capability, such that it cannot distinguish N+ from O+ by design. We propose a community goal of characterizing the full complement of plasma species (composition and charge state) within the Solar Wind/Magnetosphere/Ionosphere system to understand how these populations interact with one another and impact the system as a whole.