Whitepaper #144 in the Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) 2024-2033. Main topics: basic research. Additional topics: fundamental space plasma theory; user-need-driven basic space weather research.
Theory and modeling build fundamental understanding and constitute a comprehensive scientific program in heliophysics. As observations analysis become increasingly detailed, it is critical that theory and modeling develop more quantitative predictions. We recommend that enhanced support to expand and create theory and modeling programs to ensure the development of heliophysics research.