Whitepaper #149 in the Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) 2024-2033. Main topics: space weather applications; basic research. Additional topics: planetary magnetospheres; inner heliosphere.
The Moon represents an ideal heliophysics laboratory for the investigation of kinetic plasma physics, in situ measurements of the interplanetary and terrestrial environment, and remote measurements of geospace and beyond. Frequent future planned launches to the lunar vicinity, and international interest, make the Moon an appealing and accessible target for valuable heliophysics investigations.