Whitepaper #205 in the Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) 2024-2033. Main topics: basic research. Additional topics: solar physics.
Solar flares are a fundamental component of solar eruptive events. Flare emission is the first component of a SEE to impact the Earth’s ionosphere which can set the stage for the later effects of the space weather event. In this white paper we discuss the flare gradual phase, setting out gaps in our understanding and paths towards resolving those gaps, including specific recommendations.