Whitepaper #262 in the Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) 2024-2033. Main topics: space weather applications; basic research. Additional topics: planetary magnetospheres; planetary ionospheres / upper atmospheres; other space weather; space-based […]
The lack of accurate measurements of the cold ion and cold electron populations through the magnetosphere makes closure of long-standing science questions extremely difficult if not impossible. This will require innovations in plasma spectrometers and associated techniques required to obtain high-fidelity in-situ measurements of the cold ion and cold electron populations in the magnetosphere.