Whitepaper #319 in the Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) 2024-2033. Main topics: space weather applications; basic research. Additional topics: other space weather; inner heliosphere; solar physics; space-based missions/projects.
We argue for the urgent need for the multi-vantage observations of the Sun and the heliosphere in the framework of six key science objectives. We further emphasize the critical importance of 5D-“space”: three spatial, one temporal, and the magnetic field components. The importance of such observations cannot be overstated both for scientific research and the operational space weather forecast.