Whitepaper #332 in the Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) 2024-2033. Main topics: basic research. Additional topics: space-based missions/projects; system science.
The motivation behind this white paper is the need to improve our understanding of, and ability to simulate, energetic particle precipitation (EPP) effects on the atmosphere. Investigating coupling between the mesosphere / lower thermosphere and lower atmosphere will improve predictability of the atmospheric response to solar and magnetospheric forcing.