Whitepaper #374 in the Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) 2024-2033. Main topics: basic research. Additional topics: ground-based missions/projects; space-based missions/projects; system science.
In the next decade, we can build on advances in model sophistication and the power of exascale computing to create the first generation of cross-scale holistic geospace models. Accomplishing this will require a funding environment and heliophysics profession that can attract and retain a workforce spanning applied mathematics, physics, computer science, data science, and software engineering.