Whitepaper #396 in the Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) 2024-2033. Main topics: space weather applications. Additional topics: other space weather.
Currently, much attention is dedicated to SWx forecasting, but here, we argue that nowcasting, hindcasting, and climatological modeling are all of equally significant importance as forecasting. All combined, the true priority of improved SWx risk mitigation is prediction of the relevant state conditions at any point in time: past, present, future, and probabilistic.