Whitepaper #407 in the Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) 2024-2033. Main topics: space weather applications; basic research. Additional topics: space weather research/operations/research loop; ground-based missions/projects; user-need-driven basic […]
This document describes a comprehensive plan to investigate all different facets of the Equatorial Spread F (ESF) phenomena, formulate a series of questions, and devise a forecasting plan for ESF. It is indicated the need to understand the underlying physics of the low-latitude ionosphere and various instability mechanisms that operate near the equator.