Whitepaper #427 in the Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) 2024-2033. Main topics: space weather applications; infrastructure/workforce/other programmatic. Additional topics: space weather research/applications/operations pipeline; state of the […]
Empirical models have made significant contributions to both basic research and predictive applications. However, dedicated support for empirical modeling has faded over time. Additionally, the numerical techniques is losing its footing in graduate school curriculums. We recommend consideration of dedicated investment across agencies in support of research and educational efforts.