Whitepaper #438 in the Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) 2024-2033. Main topics: space weather applications; basic research. Additional topics: space weather research/operations/research loop; ground-based missions/projects; space weather […]
Models for space weather forecasting will never be complete/valid without accounting for inter-hemispheric asymmetries in Earth’s magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. This whitepaper is a strategic vision for understanding these asymmetries from a global perspective of geospace research and space weather monitoring, including current states, future challenges, and potential solutions.