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Completing the Multi-phase Picture of Superbubble Breakout with LEM

Presentation #110.16 in the session LEM.

Published onJul 01, 2023
Completing the Multi-phase Picture of Superbubble Breakout with LEM

Supernovae produce hot superbubbles that can break out of the ISM of star-forming galaxies, with important implications for the regulation of star formation via the redistribution of mass and metals. Despite the multi-phase nature of superbubble breakouts, our understanding of the interplay between the cool and hot phases has been limited by CCD energy resolution measurements of the soft X-ray emitting gas. The Line Emission Mapper (LEM) Probe will revolutionize our view of superbubble formation and breakout with wide-field microcalorimeter observations that will accurately measure the density and temperature profiles of the hot phase. Here we discuss synergies between HI 21-cm, Hα, and LEM soft X-ray observations of superbubbles in the Local Group, where high angular resolution will permit detailed mapping of the mass distribution and pressure profiles in the cool, warm, and hot phases. From these observations, we will address: 1) how the fate of superbubbles (breakout or confinement) is shaped by the multi-phase pressure profiles of the ISM, 2) the relative and total mass-loading factors of multi-phase outflows from superbubble breakouts as a function of metallicity, and 3) the ability of superbubble breakouts to sustain the extraplanar HI and HII layers commonly observed in star-forming galaxies via cooling from the hot phase. Progress on these questions is dependent on the wide field of view and high energy resolution that LEM uniquely provides.

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