Presentation #101.07 in the session Cosmology.
Propelled by the discovery in the late 1990s of the accelerated expansion of the universe, an unknow energy, named dark energy was hypothesized to be responsible. Due to the lack of astronomical observational data, the source of this dark energy remained a mystery until February of this year when a team of astronomers from nine countries provided strong observational evidence that the dark energy exists within isolated supermassive black holes that continue to grow. In this abstract a “relativity theory of retention (RTR)” in physics, first published fifteen years ago in a 2008 SPIE article, will be reviewed whose formulation inherently presented the appearance of dark energy in black holes. This theory is anchored in the medium duality formed by a vacuum and a black hole which are extreme medium cases for the motion and retention, respectively, of mass-energy (E=Mc2). While the energy-mass’ speed (defined as the ratio of space-length achieved per the amount-of-time used for the motion of mass-energy) attains a maximum speed in a vacuum given by the speed of light-energy in a vacuum with symbol c of 2.9979 x 108 m/sec (advancing a upper limit for speeds that sparked the birth of Einstein’s relativity theory of motion (RTM) in 1905), the mass-energy’s pace (defined as the ratio of linger-length achieved per amount-of-volume used for the retention of mass-energy), attains a maximum pace in a black hole given by the “pace of dark-energy in a black hole” with symbol χ (advancing an upper limit for paces that sparked the birth of RTR in 2008). In the 2008 SPIE article using the Bekenstein Hawking entropy for black holes the expression χ=960π c2/hG for χ was derived where G is the gravitational constant, h is the Planck constant, and 6.1296 x 1063 sec/m3 is the χ value found. While in the RTM its light time-clock (LTC) would convey a time increase or passing of time fueled by a free light-energy (vacuum-energy) that is sourced by the always increasing universe’s entropy, in the RTR its dark volume-clock (DVC) would convey a volume increase or passing of volume that is fueled by a bound dark-energy (black-hole-energy) naturally arising from the RTM vacuum-energy. Thus, the discovered volume increase of isolated black holes leading to the universe’s accelerated growth is theoretically supported by the RTR’s DVC steady tick. In ending, it is highlighted here that the revelation of the RTR naturally emerged from a past-uncertainty/future-certainty time-complementary duality principle of physics (POP), discovered in the late 1970s to have popped up in the 1960 stochastic optimum control work of Rudolph Kalman, discoverer of the Kalman Filter.