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Unveiling the Evolution of Solar Differential Rotation across Two Solar Cycles

Presentation #109.06 in the session Helioseismology and Solar Interior Posters.

Published onSep 18, 2023
Unveiling the Evolution of Solar Differential Rotation across Two Solar Cycles

Observational insights into dynamo processes are gleaned from the cyclic variations of solar differential rotation known as torsional oscillations. These oscillations are closely intertwined with the evolution of the magnetic field on the solar surface throughout the solar cycle, and they can be observed using helioseismology techniques across the entire convection zone. Our analysis focuses on helioseismic data obtained from both ground-based such as GONG and space-based instruments such as SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI, covering a span of over two decades, from the beginning of solar cycle 23 to the onset of solar cycle 25. We have examined how solar rotation has changed over this period and to characterize the evolution of different spatial components of solar differential rotation throughout the solar cycle. Understanding the characteristics of the tachocline, which is believed to be the source of solar activity, such as its width and position, is of paramount importance in comprehending solar dynamo processes. In order to achieve this understanding, we employ both inversion and forward modeling techniques. Since the spatial resolution at the base of the convection zone is typically insufficient, resolving thin structures like the tachocline poses a significant challenge. Thus, the combined utilization of inversion and forward modeling is essential for accurately identifying and characterizing this region. Additionally, studying the evolution of torsional oscillations throughout the solar cycle is crucial. Notably, a correlation exists between torsional oscillations and the solar magnetic cycle. Furthermore, it is imperative to account for outliers in the data that may lead to spurious conclusions. Therefore, we developed a technique that effectively eliminates outliers and takes their potential impact on our conclusions into consideration.

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