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Utilizing Cloud Observations and Multi-Model Data to study wind speeds and directions over Jezero Crater

Presentation #213.08 in the session Martian Aurora, Atmosphere, Winds, and Dust (Poster)

Published onOct 23, 2023
Utilizing Cloud Observations and Multi-Model Data to study wind speeds and directions over Jezero Crater

Clouds, much like on Earth, play a significant role in the dynamics of the Martian Atmosphere. They transport water around the globe and contribute noticeably to the radiation budget of the planet (Madeleine et al., 2012; Montmessin et al., 2014). Clouds on Mars have been previously observed using various missions, including orbiters, landers, and rovers. Our study builds upon these observations, focusing on the Aphelion Cloud Belt (ACB) between solar longitude (Ls) 45o to 150o (Tamppari et al., 2000; Smith et al., 2004). Using data from the Navigation Camera (NavCam) onboard Perseverance Rover, we are studying the seasonal variations of water ice clouds at Jezero Crater, the rover’s landing site. The NavCam provides color stereo images of the Martian surface and sky with a field of view of 96o x 73o at 0.33 mrad/pixel (Maki et al., 2020).

A combination of cloud surveys and movies collected by the Mars 2020 mission are used to study clouds at Jezero Crater. Cloud surveys are single images taken covering the sky, generally twice a week, at various times of the day. Similarly, cloud movies are collected by taking 8 frames of images looking towards the horizon at intervals of 15 seconds, producing a movie.

To enhance cloud features, in the NavCam Cloud movies, we apply the Mean Frame Subtraction (MFS) technique (Campbell et al., 2020; Moores et al., 2015). The processed images are corrected and projected using the CAHVORE model to correct for the fisheye lens of NavCam and the angle view bias of imaging from the ground. These are further analyzed using the template matching cross-correlation techniques (Francis et al., 2014) to estimate wind speeds based on the observed cloud movements in cloud movies. This technique involves tracking moving cloud features in the NavCam cloud movies and determining their direction as well as speed. These results are then compared with MarsWRF global and nested mesoscale (Skamarock and Klemp 2008; Newman et al, 2022) and Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) developed at Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD) data (Forget et al. 1999).

References:

Campbell C., et al., 2020. Planet. Space Sci. 182 104785, Campbell C., et al., 2021, Acta Astronaut., 181, 1-13 Forget F., et al 1999, JGR, 104, 24,155–24,175 Francis R., et al., 2014, Acta Astronaut., 94, 776-783 Maki J., et al., 2020. Space Science Reviews Moores J., et al., 2015. Adv. Space Res. 55 2217–2238, Madeleine et al., 2012, GRL, 39(23). Montmessin F., 2014, JGR, 107(E6). Skamarock W.C., Klemp J.B., 2008, JCP. 227(7), 3465–3485 Smith M. D., 2004, Icarus, 167, 148–165. Tamppari L., et al., 2000, J. Geophys. Res., 105, E2, 4087–4107.

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