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Photochemical hazes & clouds in the atmosphere of GJ 1214 b in view of recent JWST observations.

Presentation #223.08 in the session Exoplanet Atmospheres (Poster)

Published onOct 23, 2023
Photochemical hazes & clouds in the atmosphere of GJ 1214 b in view of recent JWST observations.

GJ-1214b, discovered by Charbonneau et al. (2009), is a transiting super-Earth/mini-Neptune with an M4.5-type host star at 14.6pc from the Sun. GJ-1214b is notable for its featureless transmission spectrum (Gillon et al., 2014; Kreidberg et al., 2014), which has been interpreted as evidence for the presence of clouds (ZnS, KCL) or photochemical hazes (Morley et al. 2013, 2015; Charnay et al. 2015; Gao and Benneke 2018; Ohno & Okuzumi 2018, Adam et al. 2019; Kawasima et al. 2019; Lavvas et al. 2019; Ohno et al. 2020; Christie et al. 2022). Latest observations of GJ 1214 b with JWST reveal a high-albedo atmosphere (Kempton et al. 2023), possibly rich in photochemical hazes (Gao et al. 2023). We explore in this study if the atmospheric photochemistry could generate sufficient haze to explain these observations, or if additional cloud contributions are necessary. We particularly focus on the interplay between photochemical hazes and clouds, considering the formation of ZnS, KCL and NaCL on hazes. We explore how different haze mass flux assumptions affect the resulting cloud particle properties, as well as, the roles of atmospheric mixing and atmospheric metallicity on the resulting particles distribution, and how each scenario compares with the available observational constraints.

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