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Compact 1-inch and half-inch monolithic SHRS for Time-Resolved Raman Measurements on Planetary Surfaces

Presentation #317.06 in the session Future Missions and Instrumentations - Rocky Bodies, Atmospheres (Poster)

Published onOct 23, 2023
Compact 1-inch and half-inch monolithic SHRS for Time-Resolved Raman Measurements on Planetary Surfaces

As time progresses a new generation of instruments are being developed for planetary science missions. Among the newer generation of instruments being developed is the Spatial Heterodyne Raman Spectrometer (SHRS). The SHRS is similar to a Fourier Transform interferometer (using a Michelson interferometer), where the moving mirrors are replaced with stationary diffraction gratings [1,2]. The SHRS produces stationary Fizeau Fringes that are imaged using a CCD or other imaging detector. For Raman spectroscopy, the SHRS overcomes many of the limitations that are experienced by the other two types of spectrometers. One of the biggest advantages of the SHRS design is the ability to make extremely small, high resolution Raman instruments, and recently monolithic forms (mSHRS) [3] have been described which allow for the SHRS to become compact and robust making it an ideal candidate for planetary exploration.

Raman spectroscopy allows for the unambiguous identification of molecules by examining the inelastically scattered light, and should greatly aid in exploration missions on other planets. To date, Raman spectroscopy has only been employed on the Perseverance rover which landed in Jezero Crater in February of 2021, containing two Raman spectrometers, SuperCam [4] and SHERLOC [5]. These spectrometers are utilized for remote sensing and proximity science and operate in the visible and UV parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, respectively. Another part of the Perseverance Rover mission is the Ingenuity helicopter which demonstrated the first successful flight on another world [6]. The opportunities a helicopter gives in terms of planetary exploration are numerous, dramatically increasing the number and types of targets which can be studied, and removing terrain barriers that have inhibited previous missions.

In this presentation, we examine and compare the ability of a one-inch, single-grating mSHRS (1g-mSHRS) and a half-inch dual-grating-mSHRS for the analysis of minerals and organic materials that have planetary-exploration relevance. These devices are of the size of 3.5 x 3.5 x 2.5 cm3 and 2.2 x 2.2 x 1.3 cm3 with masses of 80 g and < 60 g, respectively. Their lightweight and compact design makes them ideal candidates for rover and lander missions, as well as for helicopter use, which would greatly aid in adding context to planetary exploration missions.

References: [1] Roesler & Harlander 1990 [2] Gomer & Angel 2011, [3] Waldron et al., 2020 [4] Wiens et al., 2021 [5] Bhartia et al., 2021 [6] Crane & Spark 2021

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