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Measuring the Atmospheric Dynamics and Global Oscillations of Jupiter with the JIVE Project

Presentation #326.04 in the session Origin and Evolution of Giant Planet Systems II (Poster)

Published onOct 23, 2023
Measuring the Atmospheric Dynamics and Global Oscillations of Jupiter with the JIVE Project

Classical photometric and spectroscopic observations of the Solar System’s gas giant planets have provided a wealth of information regarding their atmospheric dynamics, yet many questions still remain. Jupiter’s level of atmospheric detail and complex weather patterns show important phenomena occurring at different spatial and temporal scales, in which we lack continuous high-resolution observations to understand its dynamics. Furthermore, observations also provide limited constraints to their interior structure and properties. Such inferences are critical to resolving competing theories of giant-planet formation, which predict specific interior signatures such as the presence of a solid or diffuse core and abundances of certain elements. The Jovian Interiors Velocimetry Experiment (JIVE) uses a global network of instruments that provides nearly continuous Doppler-imaging data for Jupiter and allows for new ways to study their atmospheric dynamics and interiors. Observations yield measurements of Doppler shifts in visible solar absorption lines resulting from reflected light by clouds in Jupiter’s upper atmosphere to produce radial-velocity maps for two primary avenues of study: seismology and winds. For seismology, we calculate each 2-D map’s respective spherical harmonics coefficients and compute a power spectrum to measure oscillations from acoustic modes in the form of power excess within some expected frequency range. For wind velocities, we characterize zonal and meridional motions to calculate wind profiles across Jupiter. Combining these two components allows us to unambiguously measure the vertical velocity—a highly unique aspect of JIVE’s observation scheme. Our zonal 1-D wind analysis shows general agreement with cloud tracking measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope’s Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) observations of Jupiter. We also present Doppler imaging data from JIVE that has yielded measurements of its own 3-D wind fields of Jupiter, which are comparable to recent Juno results. The implications from these results will allow us to directly probe the deep interior of Jupiter for the first time, leading to a fundamental breakthrough in our understanding of planetary formation and atmospheric dynamics. Furthermore, the impact of this project provides strong guidelines for a future flagship mission to Uranus, as proposed in the 2023 Planetary Science Decadal Survey, to study its atmosphere and interior.

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