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Detecting Volcanic Plumes and Ice Using High-Resolution Spectroscopy on Venus and Mars

Presentation #406.08 in the session Venus (Poster + Lightning Talk)

Published onOct 23, 2023
Detecting Volcanic Plumes and Ice Using High-Resolution Spectroscopy on Venus and Mars

We present here two case-studies of the atmospheres of terrestrial planets of the Solar System: (A) The seasonal behaviour of ice on Mars, from LNO/ExoMars observational data (Martian Year 36); (B) Sensitivity tests of volcanic plume detections on Venus future missions, such as EnVision (1,2).

In this study, high-resolution spectral data from the spectral orders 189 (center at 2.7 µm) and 168 (center at 2.3 µm) of the LNO channel on the NOMAD/ExoMars instrument (3) has been used to perform a latitudinal-seasonal map of the Ice Index and of the CO2 ice absorption band (2.35 µm). The polar caps seasonal behavior is in good agreement with previous results (4,5,6). New methods to perform cloud detection as well as differentiating between water and carbon dioxide ices are ongoing, in the framework of a synergistic collaboration between Mars Express and ExoMars TGO observations.

On Venus, the temporal and spatial distribution and variation of species such as SO2, H2O, HDO, CO and OCS in the lower atmosphere (0 - 40 km) can provide constraints on possible active volcanism on present-day Venus (1,2).

In this framework, a model was created using the Planetary Spectrum Generator (PSG) (7) radiative transfer suite to simulate the Venus near-infrared nightside spectrum, in the 2.3 µm window (8,9,10). Different compositional ranges and maximum plume altitudes were tested as input for the model and the resulting output radiance variations were used to perform sensitivity tests for the detection of these plumes, by calculation of the Jacobians and Gain Matrices (11).

References. (1) Robert et al. 2021, EPSC 2021. (2) EnVision Assessment Study Report 2021 (YB), ESA, 2021. (3) Helbert et al. 2019, Proc. SPIE 11128, Infrared Remote Sensing and Instrumentation XXVII. (4) Lozano et al. 2022, Remote Sensing. (5) Oliva et al. 2022, JGR Planets. (6) Madeleine et al. 2012, JGR Planets; (7) Villanueva et al. 2018, Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer; (8) Zasova et al. 2006, Cosmic Research; (9) Titov et al. 2009, Solar System Research. (10) Haus et al. 2010, Planetary and Space Science. (11) Rodgers, C.D., Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Souding: Theory and Practice.

Funding. This work was supported by FCT through the research grants UIDB/04434/2020 and UIDP/04434/2020 and a fellowship grant 2022.09859.BD. Funded by ESA in the framework of MWWM - Mars Wind and Wave Mapping project. SR acknowledges funding by BELSPO with financial and contractual support coordinated by the ESA Prodex Office (PEA 4000137943, 4000128137).

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