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Hot Bubbles in the Chandra Planetary Nebulae Survey

Presentation #107.31 in the session Stellar/Compact Objects - Poster Session.

Published onMay 03, 2024
Hot Bubbles in the Chandra Planetary Nebulae Survey

We present the results of the analysis of hot bubbles in planetary nebulae (PNe) as part of the Chandra X-ray Observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS). We found that all hot bubbles are detected within the cavities disclosed by nebular rims. Spectral analysis shows that the X-ray-emitting gas has abundances similar to those of the nebular material, which can be explained by mixing between the nebula and the hot bubbles through thermal conduction and/or hydrodynamical mixing. We investigated the potential for limb-brightened morphologies and make comparisons with modern simulations of the formation and evolution of PNe. We studied potential biases the ChanPlaNS sample of detected and undetected hot bubble and based on the existing simulations found evidence that the hot bubble sample is biased towards PNe descendants from intermediate-mass stars. Finally, we consider the research questions we can and should address with new, upcoming, and future X-ray missions.

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