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Sensitivity kernels for inferring Lorentz stresses from normal-mode frequency splittings in the Sun

Published onJun 01, 2020
Sensitivity kernels for inferring Lorentz stresses from normal-mode frequency splittings in the Sun

Departures from standard spherically symmetric solar models, in the form of perturbations such as global and local-scale flows and structural asphericities, result in the splitting of eigenfrequencies in the observed spectrum of solar oscillations. Drawing from prevalent ideas in normal-mode coupling theory in geophysical literature, we devise a procedure that enables the computation of sensitivity kernels for general Lorentz stress fields in the Sun. Mode coupling due to any perturbation requires careful consideration of self- and cross-coupling of multiplets. Invoking the isolated-multiplet approximation allows for limiting the treatment to purely self-coupling, requiring significantly less computational resources. We identify the presence of such isolated multiplets under the effect of Lorentz stresses in the Sun. Currently, solar missions allow precise measurements of self-coupling of multiplets via “a-coefficients” and the cross-spectral correlation signal which enables the estimation of the “structure coefficients”. We demonstrate the forward problem for both self-coupling (a-coefficients) and cross-coupling (structure coefficients). In doing so, we plot the self-coupling kernels and estimate a-coefficients arising from a combination of deep-toroidal and surface-dipolar axisymmetric fields. We also compute the structure coefficients for an arbitrary general magnetic field (real and solenoidal) and plot the corresponding “splitting function”, a convenient way to visualize the splitting of multiplets under 3D internal perturbations. The results discussed in this paper pave the way to formally pose an inverse problem, and infer solar internal magnetic fields.

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